The revolutionary changes that swept across Europe in the decades leading up to his birth caused Karl Marx to change his name to that of a whole school of thought. It was following its victory in battle. France annexed Marx's native city of Trier, along with the rest of the German Rhineland, and emancipated its Jews. Jews responded by adopting non-Jewish names and "civil" surnames. Marx's paternal grandfather, Mordechai Levi, the chief rabbi of Trier, was referred to in official French documents as "Marcus Lewy" and then as "Marx Lewy", his father, né Heschel Lewy, eventually took the name "Hein Karl was born into the Marx family.
It is still intriguing to think that Karl Marx would have been born if it wasn't for the French insistence that Jews embrace "civil" surnames. Would a theory called Levism have the same appeal as Marxism?
Avineri is the author of a biography that is part of Yale's Jewish Lives series. Marx was converted to Christianity when he was six years old, and never made public his Jewish birth ancestry, which is why he is not a good fit for this series.
The town of Trier in the Rhineland was where Marx was born, and it was there that the rule of France was overthrown. His paternal line was traced back to the 17th century when the rabbis of the Jewish community of Trier were born.th His paternal uncle, Samuel Marx, served as rabbi of Trier until his death in 1823. The Jews of the Rhineland were granted political and civic equality during the nearly two-decade period of French rule, which allowed Karl's father to study and practice law.
The right to serve as lawyers, judges, civil servants, or teachers was lost after the defeat of Napoleon in 1814 and the annexation of the Prussia to the Rhineland in 1515. After his request to continue practicing law was denied, he converted. Karl was christened in 1824.
Marx studied at the local. The gymnasium has a gym.After one year at the University of Bonn, I transferred to the University of Berlin. There, under the mentorship of one of the founding fathers. The Judentums are a part of the Wissenschaft des Judentums. The science of Judaism was the basis for modern Jewish studies, andMarx converted to Lutheranism to get an appointment as a professor of legal philosophy. He was associated with people who were trying to radicalize Hegel's legacy.
Marx developed a approach to history that thought that progress occurs through conflicts and contradictions. Hegel believed that the subject of history was a kind of embedded, dynamic rationality in the universe that became more aware of itself through advances in human knowledge. Hegel believed that reality was a product of the mind. Marx and Ludwig Feuerbach were the first to turn this history upside down. The social and economic realities that determined the ideas were not the ideas. Marx found fault with Hegel and most of the Young Hegelians, who ignored the material conditions of life that gave rise to them, and criticized ideas and attitudes that were primitive.
Marx wrote the only article-length work. He published a single issue of "On the Jewish Question." The Jahrbcher is called Deutsch-Franzsische. The Franco-German Yearbooks were printed in the early 19th century. Bruno Bauer wrote two essays on Jewish emancipation in the early 1840s. Bauer argued against giving Jews equal rights because they were incompatible with universalism and because they were obstinately particularist. If Jews first converted to Christianity, they could be free. Marx rejected this argument in his two-part essay. Marx claimed that Jews were entitled to the former, which meant that they were not required to be law-abiding if they lived in the state's boundaries. Avineri suggests that Bauer's insistence on conversion may have upset Marx because of his family history. It may have, but we should emphasize the radicalism of Marx's reasoning. Marx was one of the few people who thought in the 19th century.th Political emancipation from conversion is not separated from assimilation.
Avineri says that ifMarx had only published part I of his essay, he would be remembered as a champion of Jewish emancipation and equal rights. He showed his support for Jewish in Part II. political There was a strong aversion to Judaism. Marx attacked Judaism as a mere form of money-grubbing culture, as he wanted to consider not the "Sabbath Jew" but the "everyday Jew". He asked what the secular cult of the Jews was. It's really bad. What is his god? Money. What was the basis of the Jewish religion? Practical need and egoism. ” Civil society was based on practical need and egoism, and money was the god of the world. The conclusion was that Judaism was colonizing modern life. Marx wrote that the social emancipation of the Jew is the emancipation of society from Judaism. This was code for the freedom of modern society from the power of money.
Avineri acknowledges that Marx's language was unacceptable, but proposes a number of explanations. The German language of the time was used. Judentum is a word. The English word for "to jew" used to mean haggling or swindling, so it could also mean "commerce, trade, Huckstering in general." Marx may have derived his identification of Judaism with money from his German Jewish socialist colleague, who wrote a novel called "On Money." Avineri suggests a psychological motive for Marx.
He might have felt that he had to distance himself from Jews and Judaism so as not to be accused of supporting Jewish rights because of his own Jewish background, because of the powerful argument Marx made in Part I for equal rights.
Marx used anti-Jewish slurs in his letters, so this reading would be more plausible. Avineri notes that the most egregious example of this is the suggestion that Ferdinand Lassalle, the founder of the first working-class mass movement in Germany, was a combination of Judaism and Germanism with the basic negro substance. This is only the beginning. Marx referred to Lassalle in his correspondence. “Jdchen is a person.And “Jdel is a person.” ( Little Jew. “Itzig.” andBaron Itzig.. ” Marx had an anti-Jewish disdain.
Marx was caustic, even cruel, in his writings about a lot of people. He did not seek to revocation of Jewish rights or to suppress Jewish religious practice. He was able to form warm relationships with Jews, as he did with the modern Jewish historian, Heinrich Graetz. Avineri points to Marx's revisit of the question of Jewish emancipation one year after "On the Jewish Question" as his strongest argument for a nuanced view of Jewishness. The Holy Family is made up of many people. Marx repeats his case for Jewish political emancipation while not mentioning the invective. He defends Bauer's Jewish critics. Avineri asked if Marx came to feel that his equation. Judentum is a word. Modern capitalism was misguided. He concedes that there is no clear answer to the questions, but he leaves the possibility that Marx made a conscious decision to change his opinion of Jews.
Marx may have been trying to repair things. The Holy Family is made up of many people. It is not clear to me that his remorse was more than tactical, as there is evidence of anti-Jewish feeling in his private writings. Marx shared the stereotypes of Jews as exploiters and Judaism as an "egoistic" religion with other European liberals and revolutionaries, which is the most likely explanation for his treatment of Judaism in "On the Jewish Question". It is more likely that he was simply unplugged and not trying to distance himself from his Jewish roots.
Marx wrote about the Jewish question. ” He moved to Paris with his wife Jenny von Westphalen after the first newspaper he edited was suppressed by the government. The Rheinische Zeitun is a German word.The Rhineland News is a publication. Marx met Friedrich Engels in Paris, who was from a wealthy German Lutheran family of textile manufacturers. While working with the family's business partners in Manchester, he wrote about the plight of the English working class, which had already spurred his radical and communist sympathies. Marx and his family moved to Brussels after the French government kicked him out of France in 1845. Marx was forced to leave the Rhineland in May 1849 after the government snuffed out the revolution, but he was still active in Cologne for a year and a half. He spent 34 years in London and only intermittently returned to the continent.
Marx and his partner, the writer, writer and thinker, Engels, worked on a theory of history and class struggle that was published in the late 19th century. The Communists. The manifesto.. The changes in the productive forces of technology and economic organization are said to have led to the evolution of human history. This was a departure from the Hegelian emphasis on ideas, rather than economic conditions.
Marx argued that changing modes of production gave rise to different classes and ideas of law and property. The dominant ideas of law, morality, and religion at any particular time might be presented as eternal truths but they were actually reflecting the interests of the then-ruling class. When the productive forces in a society developed to a point where their further development would only cause mischief, there was a change in control of the means of production. A social class arose, which formed the majority of society, and which was conscious of the necessity of a fundamental revolution. Marx and Engels believed that this point had been reached in their time because of industrialization and the immiseration of the proletariat.
The League of Communists published their founding pamphlet a few days before the Paris revolution. It was called. The.The Communists. The manifesto., And. Marx and Engels were not credited with their work. It had little impact initially, but it has come to be seen as one of the most significant statements of Marx's thought. The history of class struggle is the history of all hitherto existing society. The manifesto. The theory of historical development was combined with a harsh attack on other socialist thinkers and schools. The main goal was to show how the bourgeoisie produces. The fall and victory of the proletariat are inevitable.
Marx provided a plan for the proletarian seizure of political power. Avineri shows the measures to be more complex and circumspect than they are thought to be. Marx said that the abolition of private industry would be gradual to avoid an immediate economic and financial crisis and that the owners of the means of production would become active opponents of the revolution. Avineri discerns some hints of caution in the most revolutionary of Marx's writings.
The failure of the 1848 revolutions made this moderation more pronounced. Marx mostly ignored the world-historical generalities of his writings of the 1840s in favor of analysis of the tedious quotidian details of political and social reality. The postmortem of the abortive revolution in France was written by the 18th Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte. The Kapital is called Das Kapital.Marx showed more interest in historical variations between countries in their progress toward a proletarian revolution. Marx learned from the failed revolutions that capitalism would only be replaced when it had developed sufficiently to be replaced.
Marx's 1871 was the most famous. The war that happened in the country. France.The defense of the Paris Commune was written by a member of the leadership of the International Working Men's Association. Marx became famous as an international revolutionary masterminding a worldwide revolutionary socialist conspiracy, yet Avineri shows that he was not a fan of the Commune. Marx praised the heroism of the Commune fighters, but never described the uprising as a proletarian revolution.
Marx is still alive and well. A shadowy figure is in this biography. . Avineri notes the close bond between Marx and his wife, Jenny, who supported and aided his involvement in socialist activity, despite the immense burden on the family's finances. He shows how the family was poor in the first years after they moved to London. Marx has a lot of health problems, as well as his combination of irascibility and warmth. This is a tour of Marx's main writings. Avineri never addresses the paradoxes of a man who championed the proletariat but who struggled to maintain a foothold in the middle class and provide a bourgeois upbringing for his three daughters. Marx lost his son at the age of eight and Jenny had two children who lived for only a little over a year. The husband, father, friend, and enemy of Marx are only seen in a few brief moments.
What was Marx's legacy? Capitalism has not collapsed its internal contradictions because of 20.thCentury states took steps to alleviate the disparity it gave rise to through redistributionist social welfare programs. The rejuvenation of Marxist and quasi-Marxist thought in the wake of the 2008–2009 financial crisis is not taken into account by him. The demise of the Soviet Union and the tenuous connection of it and the supposedly communist states in its vicinity to Marx's actual writings are mentioned by Avineri. Marx has a profound influence on the humanities and social sciences. He writes that one cannot write history without acknowledging and researching the links between economic issues and political structures.
Marx has Jewishness, but Avineri has no opinion about it. The epithet "Jew" has been applied to Marx more persistently than any other individual, from Abraham and Moses to Herzl and Martin Buber, as argued by Julius Carlebach decades ago. The right-wing opposition to socialist parties and trade unions in the late 19th century was based on the idea that Marx was Jewish.th The first half of the 20.thThe Nazis and Hitler had a long history of attacking the Jew Karl Marx and the Judeo-Bolshevism. This is still alive on the alt-right. Marx was often celebrated as a Jewish folk hero by Jewish socialists.
Shlomo Avineri wrote. A good, compact and accessible biography of Karl Marx. . Marx had a more nuanced, incremental, and differentiated view of the path to socialism than the Bolsheviks, and others who claimed his mantle, appreciated. Marx must be separated from Marxism. The contention that Marx's Jewish background is important when assessing his work is not sustained. Marx did not argue for Jewish emancipation or his assault on Judaism as a result of a money culture in his book "On the Jewish Question."
There is a difference between a post apostate and one that is not.thThe century German poet, who spent his formative years as a Jew, addressed Jewish themes in his work, and expressed regret about his conversion late in life, and Marx, about whom none of the above is true. Avineri thinks that Marx's silence on his Jewish origins is indicative of the degree to which he is. Marx understood Jewishness in a religious and cultural light, as most 19 of them do.th-century He remained silent on the subject because he identified with neither, prior to the rise of racial antisemitism. Marx did not try to hide his Jewish heritage by treating many Jews in his correspondence as a kind of negative "Jewish fingerprint". There were vicious stereotypes and brutal scorn in the 19th The century.
One may doubt whether this biography of one of the most influential thinkers of the modern world is a good one, but it is a good biography.